Biomass

What is biomass?

Biomass is the biodegradable part of products, biological waste and residues from agriculture (including plant and animal matter), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable part of industrial and municipal waste.

Biomass does not include fossil fuels, peat, paper and paperboard, textiles, animal body parts, industrial waste ', except biomass waste, municipal waste, waste from municipal wastewater treatment plants and commercial waste.


Biomass is considered as CO2 neutral fuel. During photosynthesis, plants absorb the CO2 from air, and the same amount of absorbed CO2 is realised from plants during the burning. If the same amount of biomass is planted and used to produce energy, the whole process is completely CO2 neutral.

Why invest in biomass heating system transition?

  • Biomass processing includes new advanced technology
  • Biomass is a cheaper fuel compared to the remaining fuels
  • It is easier to get funds for a biomass boiler than for a conventional fossil fuel boiler
  • Biomass is a clean, renewable energy source.
  • Money invested in the development of biomass stays in a municipality or region, as biomass does not have to pre-empt existing local character.

With the realization of the project and transition to biomass in heating systems, local municipalities in Serbia have significant budget savings due to the lower cost of wood chips and pellets than other fuels. This way, part of the saved budget is applicable for other necessary project investments in local self-government. In addition, the procurement of biomass as an energy source from the immediate environment leads to the establishment of a biomass supply chain, job creations and, most importantly, contributes to local economic development.

 

Biogas

What is biogas?

Biogas is produced as a result of the decomposed organic matter without the presence of oxygen. This biochemical process is called anaerobic digestion, and it occurs naturally in an animal digestion system or in wetlands, but a biogas plant can also be built.

Biodegradable plant and animal organic waste, biodegradable organic municipal waste (from catering, households or industry), liquid and solid manure, agricultural waste (straw and harvest residues) can be used as raw material for the production of biogas or can be used for the purpose of cultivation of energy plants.

How does a biogas plant work?

After preparation, feedstock for biogas is sent to a digester, where organic matter decomposition process takes place without oxygen, while maintaining a constant temperature and stirring. As a result of this process, biogas is generated. The most important component of biogas is methane (CH4), which is mostly present (50-65%). Other components are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen, water, etc. Biogas generated in the digester is temporarily stored in the upper part of the digester (usually an elastic membrane) and then transported by pipeline to a biogas cleaning system where sulfur, water and other unwanted impurities are removed. Purified gas is transported to the cogeneration module (engine) where electricity and heat are produced.

Part of the heat is used for the process of heating the digester, the rest of the heat can be used for different needs as well as for consumers. A very important product is a quality fertilizer that returns to the soil.

What are the benefits of biogas?

  •  It is produced from biomass, which is renewable, unlike fossil fuels.
  • Fossil fuels are most commonly imported, while biomass is locally sourced.
  • The use of manure in the biogas production process eliminates methane emissions during storage of manure (greenhouse effect).
  • During the burning of biogas, carbon dioxide (CO2) is created, in which the same amount of carbon is incorporated into the biomass in the photosynthesis process, so this CO2 process is neutral.
  • In addition to heat and electricity, the product of the biogas plant is a high-quality fertilizer that can replace mineral fertilizers.
  • Electricity generated from biogas plants can be sold at feed-in rates.